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Air Barrier Association of America (ABAA)

The Center of Excellence for the Air Barrier Industry

Air Barrier Technical Library

ABAA Research Projects

WALL RETROFIT PROJECT

Attached is the final report on a research project that ABAA was involved in. The project was to determine the most appropriate way of retrofitting old CMU constructed buildings from the inside. First a list was generated of all the potential methods for retrofit. From that the list was culled down based on cost and expected energy savings. From that a short list of potential walls were modeled to determine energy savings. Two of the most promising walls were then constructed on the Building research Platform at Oakridge National Laboratories. They were instrumented and monitored. The attached is the final report on this project.

Case Study Guidelines and Results

One Page Summary of Results

Hanley Wood University - Architectural Course Description

FIELD ASSESSMENT OF AIR BARRIERS AT THE BUILDING ENVELOPE SYSTEMS TEST (BEST) LABORATORY – PHASE 1

The Buildings Technologies Research and Integration Center (BTRIC) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) performed field evaluations of 24 wall panels with different types of air barriers that are commonly used in residential and commercial construction. Field assessments were conducted from September 2009 until August 2010 at the Building Envelope Systems Test (BEST) laboratory, which is located at Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY. This project is a cooperative research among ORNL, the Air Barrier Association of America (ABAA), Syracuse University, and the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA).

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EFFECTS FROM THE REDUCTION OF AIR LEAKAGE ON ENERGY AND DURABILITY

Buildings are responsible for approximately 40% of the energy used in the US. Codes have been increasing building envelope requirements, and in particular those related to improving airtightness, in order to reduce energy consumption. The main goal of this research was to evaluate the effects from reductions in air leakage on energy loads and material durability. To this end, we focused on the airtightness and thermal resistance criteria set by the 2012 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC). Requirements from the 2012 IECC will be setting the path for construction practices across the nation for some time given the slow adoption rate of new codes. As of September 2013, the 2012 IECC has been adopted fully or with limitations by only seven states.

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Evaluation of Air Barriers for Residential Buildings

The purpose of this project was to increase the knowledgebase on air barriers for residential buildings. To this end, nine air barrier assemblies were evaluated following a modified version of the ASTM E2357 Standard Test Method from the American Society for Testing and Materials. The assemblies included the eight air barrier types that are readily available in the US, even if some of these are currently mostly used in commercial construction.

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National Research Council Wall Drainage Research Project Reports

The National Research Council (NRC) in collaboration with ABAA performed research on “Performance Evaluation of Proprietary Drainage Components and Sheathing Membranes when Subjected to Climate Loads.” Listed below are 10 reports on their findings.

  1. Task 1 – Wall Assembly Specifications
  2. Task 2 – Building Component Hygrothermal Properties Characterization
  3. Task 3 – Hygrothermal Model Benchmarking
  4. Task 4 – Characterization of Air Flow Within Drainage Cavities and Drainage Components
  5. Task 5 – Defining Exterior Climate Loads
  6. Task 5 – Characterization of Water Entry, Retention and Drainage of Components
  7. Task 6 – Hygrothermal Performance of NBC-Compliant Reference Walls for Selected Canadian Locations
  8. Task 6 – Hygrothermal Performance of Client Wall Assemblies for Selected Canadian Locations
  9. Task 6 – Hygrothermal Performance of Client Wall Assemblies: Results for wall components having Medium Resistant (MR) Mould Growth Sensitivity Class
  10. Task 7 – Summary Report on Experimental and Modelling Tasks and Recommendations

ABAA TECHNICAL BULLETINS

APPLICATION OF TRANSITION MEMBRANES IN BUILDING ENVELOPE DESIGN (ABAA Technical Bulletin – 2011-02)

The following Technical Bulletin is a overview on the application of designing transition membranes into the building assembly.

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CODE UPDATES (ABAA Technical Bulletin – 2012-01)

The following document is an overview of the requirements of Air Barrier Materials, Air Barrier Assemblies, whole building testing, and Water Resistive Barriers in ASHRAE 90.1-2010, ASHRAE 189.1-11, 2012 IRC, 2012 IECC, 2012 IgCC and 2012 IBC.

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SPF Adhesion/Cohesion Testing (ABAA Technical Bulletin – 2012-02)

The following document is a clarification on the method that ABAA SPF Installers and Auditors must follow to test the adhesion and cohesion of SPF for the daily work records and audit reports.

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IS ASTM E283 INTERCHANGEABLE WITH ASTM E2178

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ABAA TECHNICAL ARTICLES

What are the two primary test methods of water vapor permeance in ASTM E96?

There is a lot of misinformation in the industry currently about vapor permeability and the numbers reported. The 2012 International Building Code defines vapor permeable membrane as “the property of having a moisture vapor permeance rating of 10 [US] perms (5.7 x 10-10 kg/Pa x s x m2) or greater, when tested in accordance with the desiccant method using Procedure A of ASTM E96.” The 2012 International Residential Code uses the same definition for vapor permeability though uses a threshold of 5 US Perms when defining a vapor permeable membrane.

Currently the two primary methods of testing to ASTM E96 is Procedure A [desiccant method/dry cup] and Procedure B[water method/wet cup]. The results achieved from those two methods will differ and need to be known by the design professional when they are conducting a hygrothermal analysis.

On ABAA's "Evaluated Materials" page, we list both methods at the tested thickness. Please refer to this page to ensure you are comparing identical test methods when evaluating materials.

Click here to view this document.

What is the Procedure for Testing the Pull-Off Strength of Air Barrier Materials?

ABAA requires daily adhesion testing from our Air Barrier Contractors as well as testing when our Auditors are conducting inspections. This is a good overview document on how to conduct adhesion testing of air barrier materials.

Click here to view this document.

AIR BARRIER CONSTRUCTION DESIGN DETAILS

AIR BARRIER MANUFACTURER DESIGN DETAILS

View our list of ABAA Evaluated Air Barrier Assemblies that have completed a ASTM E2357 Standard Test Method for Determining Air Leakage of Air Barrier Assemblies. This test combines the primary air barrier material with supporting air barrier accessories such as transition membranes and sealants to form a complete air barrier assembly, near-identical to how a wall would be designed and built in your construction project.

For each air barrier assembly listing, you will find air barrier construction design details from the manufacturer which you can download and use in your project design. Click here to download these design details.

STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS DESIGN DETAILS

A number of general details were developed when the State of Massachusetts adopted air barriers in their current energy code. The details provide a number of wall systems and provides general guidance into some of the design considerations: http://www.mass.gov/eopss/consumer-prot-and-bus-lic/license-type/csl/sample-details.html.

Want to learn more about air barriers, their use in construction, cost benefits and design guidelines ? Check out of technical library and air barrier materials page.

ABAA AIR BARRIER MASTER SPECIFICATIONS

Click here for the ABAA Air Barrier Master Specifications

AIR BARRIERS

  1. "Continuing Problems with Air Barrier Systems" - The Construction Specifier December 2011
    http://www.kenilworth.com/publications/cs/de/201112/files/62.html
  2. NEEC - Air Barrier Management Fact Sheet, July 2011
    NREC-Air-Barrier-07-2011.pdf
  3. "Air Barriers: An Evolution" April 2010
    http://www.masonrymagazine.com/Features/air-barriers-an-evolution.html
  4. The High Performance House – What Does It Take? – Part One
    www.homeenergy.org/archive/hem.dis.anl.gov/eehem/99/990308.html
  5. Handling Framing Details in High – Performance Homes – Part Two
    www.homeenergy.org/archive/hem.dis.anl.gov/eehem/99/990512.html
  6. The air barrier defined.
    www.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/eng/ibp/irc/bsi/86-air-barrier.html
  7. Air barrier systems: Construction Applications
    www.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/eng/ibp/irc/bsi/86-construction-applications.html
  8. The difference between a vapour barrier and an air barrier.
    www.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/obj/irc/doc/pubs/bpn/54_e.pdf
  9. Air Barrier Systems in Buildings
    www.wbdg.org/resources/airbarriers.php
  10. Moisture Control for Buildings
    www.eere.energy.gov/buildings/building_america/pdfs/db/33288.pdf
  11. Let's Talk about ... Moisture and Mold
    www.eere.energy.gov/buildings/building_america/pdfs/db/33182.pdf
  12. A Method of Evaluating Air Barrier Systems and Materials
    www.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/eng/ibp/irc/ctus/ctus-n46.html
  13. Guidelines For Delivering Effective Air Barrier Systems
    www.cmhc-schl.gc.ca/en/inpr/bude/himu/coedar/upload/Guidelines-for-Delivering-Effective-Air-Barrier-Systems-PDF.pdf
  14. Design Considerations for an Air Barrier System
    www.cmhc-schl.gc.ca/en/inpr/bude/himu/coedar/upload/Design-Considerations-for-an-Air-Barrier-System-OAA.pdf
  15. Air Sealing in Occupied Homes
    www.homeenergy.org/archive/hem.dis.anl.gov/eehem/95/951111.html
  16. Air Barriers
    www.buildingscience.com/documents/reports/rr-0403-air-barriers
  17. Structural Requirements for Air Barriers
    www.cmhc-schl.gc.ca/publications/en/rh-pr/tech/91-201.pdf
  18. Air Barrier Materials and Systems: What is the Difference? Is There a Difference?
    www.icr.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/fulltext/prac/nrcc44978/nrcc44978.pdf
  19. Guide to Insulation Sheathing
    www.buildingscience.com/documents/guides-and-manuals/gm-guide-insulating-sheathing/view?searchterm=insulation sheathing
  20. Single Wythe Block Construction
    Analysis on how single wythe block can meet the requirements for the energy code for various states
    A report has been generated to provide guidance.
    single_wythe_block.pdf
  21. Air Barriers in Building Construction
    Understanding Costs, Meeting Performance Standards and Exceeding Codes
    Honeywell 2010 - White Paper_Air Barriers - SPF.pdf

BUILDING ENVELOPES

  1. Wrap it up: Building Houses with the Skin on the Outside
    www.homeenergy.org/archive/hem.dis.anl.gov/eehem/99/991108.html
  2. Energy Efficient Remodeling – Grab the Opportunity!
    www.homeenergy.org/archive/hem.dis.anl.gov/eehem/95/950110.html
  3. Controlling the transfer of heat, air and moisture through the Building Envelope.
    www.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/eng/ibp/irc/bsi/90-controlling-heat.html
  4. Wind and air pressure on the Building Envelope
    www.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/eng/ibp/irc/bsi/86-air-pressures.html
  5. Joe Lstiburek & Betsy Pettit: Better Building
    www.housingzone.com/pb/article/joe-lstiburek-amp-betsy-pettit-better-building
  6. Wind Safety of the Building Envelope
    www.wbdg.org/design/env_wind.php
  7. The New Building Crisis: A Survival Guide
    www.rd.com/content/openContent.do?contentId=14117
  8. Are Your Houses Too Tight?
    www.energyconservatory.com/articles/articles2.htm
  9. Low-Permeance Materials in Building Envelopes
    www.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/eng/ibp/irc/ctus/ctus-n41.html
  10. Service Life of the Building Envelope
    www.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/eng/ibp/irc/bsi/84-building-envelope.html
  11. Integrating the Window with the Building Envelope
    www.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/eng/ibp/irc/bsi/88-window-envelope.html
  12. Air Pressure and the Building Envelope
    www.cmhc-schl.gc.ca/en/inpr/bude/himu/coedar/upload/Air-Pressure-and-the-Building-Envelope.pdf
  13. Building Envelope – Keeping Walls Dry – Part 1
    www.cmhc-schl.gc.ca/en/inpr/bude/himu/coedar/upload/Keeping-Walls-Dry-Part-1.pdf
  14. Building Envelope – Keeping Walls Dry – Part 2
    www.cmhc-schl.gc.ca/en/inpr/bude/himu/coedar/upload/Keeping-Walls-Dry-Part-2.pdf
  15. Impact of Air Leakage on the Thermal and Moisture Performance of the Building Envelope
    www.ornl.gov/~webworks/cppr/y2001/pres/111606.pdf
  16. Details: Airtight Framing
    www.coastalcontractor.net/pdf/2006/0601/0601deta.pdf
  17. Weather-Tight Exteriors
    www.coastalcontractor.net/pdf/2004/0409/0409weat.pdf
  18. Investigation of the Impact of Commercial Building Envelope Airtightness on HVAC Energy Use.
    www.nist.gov/customcf/get_pdf.cfm?pub_id=101325
  19. The Trouble With It: Building Science
    the_trouble_with_it_building_science.pdf

VAPOR BARRIER

  1. Beauty and the Beast Upstairs
    www.homeenergy.org/archive/hem.dis.anl.gov/eehem/95/950309.html
  2. Out, Out Dammed Ice!
    www.homeenergy.org/archive/hem.dis.anl.gov/eehem/96/961109.html
  3. Vapour Barriers in Home Construction
    www.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/eng/ibp/irc/cbd/building-digest-9.html
  4. Vapour Barriers: What are they? Are they effective?
    www.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/eng/ibp/irc/cbd/building-digest-175.html
  5. Air leakage control
    www.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/eng/ibp/irc/bsi/86-air-leakage.html
  6. Control of air leakage is important
    www.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/eng/ibp/irc/cbd/building-digest-72.html
  7. Air leakage in buildings
    www.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/eng/ibp/irc/cbd/building-digest-23.html
  8. Humidity in Canadian Buildings
    www.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/eng/ibp/irc/cbd/building-digest-1.html
  9. Humidified Buildings
    www.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/eng/ibp/irc/cbd/building-digest-42.html
  10. Vapor Barriers and Wall Design
    http://www.buildingscience.com/documents/reports/rr-0410-vapor-barriers-and-wall-design
  11. Understanding Vapor Barriers
    www.buildingscience.com/documents/digests/bsd-106-understanding-vapor-barriers/?searchterm=vapor barriers
  12. Vapor Barriers and Wall Design
    www.buildingscience.com/documents/reports/rr-0410-vapor-barriers-and-wall-design

MOISTURE / HUMIDITY

  1. Moisture Control in Bathrooms
    www.homeenergy.org/archive/hem.dis.anl.gov/eehem/98/980310.html
  2. Moisture and Mobile Home Weatherization
    www.homeenergy.org/archive/hem.dis.anl.gov/eehem/95/950711.html
  3. Fundamental of Moisture in Houses
    www.homeenergy.org/archive/hem.dis.anl.gov/eehem/95/951108.html
  4. Moisture problems in houses
    www.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/eng/ibp/irc/cbd/building-digest-231.html
  5. Moisture Sources in Houses
    www.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/eng/ibp/irc/bsi/83-moisture-source.html
  6. Building Science: Understanding Heat Flow
    www.housingzone.com/pb/article/building-science-understanding-heat-flow
  7. Building Science: Understanding Air Flow
    www.housingzone.com/pb/article/building-science-understanding-air-flow
  8. Building Science: Moisture Flow
    www.housingzone.com/pb/article/building-science-moisture-flow
  9. Building Science: Clearing the Air
    www.housingzone.com/pb/article/building-science-clearing-air
  10. Moisture Control for Buildings
    www.buildingscience.com/documents/reports/rr-0205-moisture-control-for-buildings
  11. Relative Humidity
    www.buildingscience.com/documents/reports/rr-0203-relative-humidity
  12. Humidity Control in the South
    www.buildingscience.com/documents/reports/rr-9302-humidity-control-in-the-humid-south
  13. Measuring Humidity in your Home
    www.cmhc-schl.gc.ca/en/co/maho/yohoyohe/momo/momo_002.cfm
  14. Moisture and Wood-Frame Building
    www.cwc.ca/NR/rdonlyres/1CE8A817-56C8-4E56-A083-3CD9125638B2/0/BP_1moisturee.pdf

VENTILATION

  1. Unventing Attics in Cold Climates
    www.homeenergy.org/archive/hem.dis.anl.gov/eehem/99/991111.html
  2. Reexamining Roof Ventilation
    www.homeenergy.org/archive/hem.dis.anl.gov/eehem/00/001110.html
  3. Forum Brings Fresh Air to Ventilation Issues
    www.homeenergy.org/archive/hem.dis.anl.gov/eehem/00/000511.html
  4. Ventilating Attics to Minimize Icings at Eaves
    www.homeenergy.org/archive/hem.dis.anl.gov/eehem/95/950310.html
  5. Mechanical Ventilation for the Home
    www.homeenergy.org/archive/hem.dis.anl.gov/eehem/96/960307.html
  6. Ventilation of houses.
    www.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/eng/ibp/irc/bsi/83-house-ventilation.html
  7. Ventilation Principles
    www.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/eng/projects/irc/cope/principles-ventilation.html
  8. Preventing Ice Dams
    bct.eco.umass.edu/publications/by-title/preventing-ice-dams/
  9. Residential Ventilation: Too Little, Too Much, or Just Right?
    www.buildingscience.org/resources/mold/read_Before_You_Ventilate.pdf
  10. Why Houses Need Mechanical Ventilation Systems
    www.irc.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/pubs/ctus/14_e.html
  11. Current Approaches for Mechanical Ventilations of Houses
    www.irc.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/pubs/ctus/15_e.html
  12. Factors Affecting the Performance of Ventilation Systems in Large Buildings
    www.irc.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/pubs/ctus/33_e.html
  13. Evaluating Ventilation in Multifamily Buildings
    www.homeenergy.org/archive/hem.dis.anl.gov/94/940710.html
  14. Improving the Evaluation of Building Ventilation
    www.nist.gov/bflpubs/build95/PDF/b95048.pdf
  15. Myths about Building Envelopes
    www.nist.gov/bflpubs/build99/PDF/b99042.pdf
  16. Ventilation
    www.amerispec.ca/english/brochures/ventilation.htm
  17. Residential Ventilation and Latent Loads
    www.buildingscience.com/resources/articles/Residential_Ventilation_Latent_Load.pdf
  18. Airflow in the Ventilation Space Behind a Rain Screen Wall
    www.ornl.gov/~webworks/cppr/y2001/pres/122262.pdf
  19. Forum Brings Fresh Air to Ventilation Issues
    www.homeenergy.org/archive/hem.dis.anl.gov/eehem00/000511.html

MOLD

  1. Drying out a crawlspace
    www.homeenergy.org/archive/hem.dis.anl.gov/eehem/00/000115.html
  2. Better Breathing Thanks to Good Science
    www.homeenergy.org/consumerinfo/breathe/bestbreathe.html
  3. Moisture Control in Bathrooms
    www.homeenergy.org/archive/hem.dis.anl.gov/eehem/98/980310.html
  4. Sick Houses : Using Diagnostic Tools to Improve Indoor Air Quality
    www.homeenergy.org/archive/hem.dis.anl.gov/eehem/97/971107.html
  5. Rain Penetration and Moisture Damage in Residential Construction
    www.irc.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/pubs/cdb/bsi83-1_e.html
  6. Dealing with Moisture Problems
    www.homesandcottages.com/homeowner/archive_featarticle_detail.php?article_id=24
  7. Beating the Mould Challenge.
    www.homesandcottages.com/homeowner/archive_featarticle_detail.php?article_id=131
  8. Indoor Air Quality and Mold Prevention of the Building Envelope
    www.wbdg.org/design/env_iaq.php
  9. Moisture Management
    www.housingzone.com/article/CA466887.html
  10. Tips for Controlling Mold
    www.housingzone.com/article/CA664468.html
  11. Winning the War Against Mold
    www.housingzone.com/article/CA466342.html
  12. Water Management – control moisture problems, and you can control mold.
    www.housingzone.com/article/CA462083.html
  13. Mold: A growing concern!
    www.housingzone.com/article/CA467776.html
  14. What you need to know about mold
    www.buildingscience.com/resources/mold/mold_need_to_know.pdf
  15. Mold Testing
    www.buildingscience.com/resources/mold/mold_testing.pdf
  16. Mold Remediation in Occupied Homes
    www.buildingscience.com/resources/mold_remediation.pdf
  17. Mold: Causes, Health Effects and Clean-Up
    www.buildingscience.com/resources/mold_causes.pdf
  18. Moisture, Building Enclosures, and Mold – Part 1
    www.buildingscience.com/resources/Mold_part_1.pdf
  19. Moisture, Building Enclosures, and Mold – Part 2
    www.buildingscience.com/resourcesMold_part_2.pdf
  20. Humidity Control in the Humid South
    www.buildingscience.com/documents/reports/rr-9302-humidity-control-in-the-humid-south
  21. Mold and Moisture Dynamics
    www.wbdg.org/design/moisturedynamics.php
  22. Dangers of Mold lie in Ambiguity
    www.windowanddoor.net/pastarticles.php?id=56
  23. Combating Mold and Mildew
    www.rd.com/content/openContent.do?contentId=18292
  24. Mould
    www.amerispec.ca/english/brochures/5_mould.htm
  25. Air Pressure and Building Envelopes
    www.buildingscience.com/resources/walls/air_pressure_envelope.pdf
  26. Fighting Mold – The Homeowners Guide
    www.cmhc-schl.gc.ca/en/maho/yohoyohe/memo/memo_005.cfm?renderforprint=1
  27. Should You Test the Air in your Home for Mold?
    www.cmhc-schl.gc.ca/en/maho/yohoyohe/memo/memo_006.cfm?renderforprint=1
  28. Water Damage, Mold and House Insurance
    www.cmhc-schl.gc.ca/en/maho/yohoyohe/memo/memo_007.cfm?renderforprint=1
  29. How To Clean-Up The Mold:
    www.gcrc.meds.cwru.edu/stach/cleanup.htm
  30. Mold & Mildew – Cleaning up your Flood Damaged Home
    www.fema.gov/pdf/reg-x/mold_mildew.pdf
  31. Mold & Moisture – Should you be Concerned?
    www.hud.gov/offices/lead/helpyourself/Mold.pdf
  32. A Brief Guide to Mold, Moisture, and your Home.
    www.epa.gov/iaq/molds/images/moldguide.pdf
  33. Mold Remediation in Schools and Commercial Buildings.
    www.epa.gov/iaq/molds/images/moldremediation.pdf
  34. Mold and Moisture
    www.epa.gov/iaq/schools/tfs/guideh.html
  35. Indoor Air Quality and Mold Prevention of the Building Envelope
    www.wbdg.org/design/env_iaq.pdf
  36. Indoor Air – Mold
    www.epa.gov/cgi-bin/epaprintonly.cgi
  37. Sick Houses – Using Diagnostic Tools to Improve Indoor Air Quality
    www.homeenergy.org/archive/hem.dis.anl.gov/eehem97/971107.html

INSULATION

  1. Snowy and Icy Indicators of Wasted Money
    www.homeenergy.org/consumerinfo/roofs/index.html
  2. First Step in Cellulose Sealing : Spot the Style
    www.homeenergy.org/archive/hem.dis.anl.gov/eehem/98/980508.html
  3. Home Energy's Consumer Guide to Insulation
    www.homeenergy.org/archive/hem.dis.anl.gov/eehem/96/960908.html
  4. The Insulation Industry's Dirty Secret
    www.homeenergy.org/archive/hem.dis.anl.gov/eehem/oo/001112.html
  5. An Insulation Roundup
    www.homeenergy.org/archive/hem.dis.anl.gov/eehem/00/001113.html
  6. Choosing Insulation
    www.housingzone.com/article/CA496439.html
  7. Prevent Ice Dams
    www.rd.com/cotent/openContent.do?contentId=19396
  8. Insulation, Sheathings and Vapor Retarders
    www.buildingscience.com/documents/reports/rr-0412-insulations-sheathings-and-vapor-retarders
  9. Vermiculite Insulation Containing Amphibole Asbestos
    www.hc-sc.gc.ca/hl-vs/iyh-vsv/prod/insulation-isolant-eng.php
  10. Air Leakage Control
    www.oee.nrcan.gc.ca/Publications/infosource/pub/renovate/airleakage/
    english/airleakage.pdf

ENERGY EFFICIENCY / CONSERVATION

  1. ASHRAE Standard 189.1 - Standard for the Design of High-Performance, Green Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings
    blog.betterbricks.com/design/2010/02/standard-189-1-for-the-design-of-high-performance-buildings-adopted
  2. Building Better - How High-Efficiency Buildings Will Save Money and Reduce Global Warming (March 2010)
    BuildingBetter_ReduceGlobalWarming.pdf
  3. Temperature Gradients through Building Envelopes
    www.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/eng/ibp/irc/cbd/building-digest-36.html
  4. Thermal Bridges in Buildings
    www.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/eng/ibp/irc/cbd/building-digest-44.html
  5. Heat Transfer at Building Surfaces
    www.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/eng/ibp/irc/cbd/building-digest-52.html
  6. Thermal Resistance of Building Insulation
    www.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/eng/ibp/irc/cbd/building-digest-149.html
  7. Energy Conservation in Canadian School Building
    www.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/eng/ibp/irc/cbd/building-digest-209.html
  8. Performance Testing Standards for building
    www.irc.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/pubs/cbd/cbd210_e.html
  9. The National Research Council of Canada: Energy Efficiency Pioneer
    www.energy-econergie.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/case_study.pdf
  10. Interior Lighting Design and Energy Conservation
    www.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/eng/ibp/irc/cbd/building-digest-192.html
  11. Space Heating and Energy Conservation
    www.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/eng/ibp/irc/cbd/building-digest-142.html
  12. New Energy Codes and Their Impact on Lighting Design
    www.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/eng/ibp/irc/bsi/92-energy-codes.html
  13. Rehabilitation of Solid Masonry Walls
    www.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/eng/projects/irc/masonry-rehabilitation.html
  14. Energy Education: A Kilowatt is a Terrible Thing to Waste
    www.homeenergy.org/archive/hem.dis.anl.gov/eehem/95/950913.html
  15. Energy Savings Rise High in Multifamily Buildings
    www.homeenergy.org/archive/hem.dis.anl.gov/eehem/95/950908.html
  16. The Key to Persistence
    www.homeenergy.org/archive/hem.dis.anl.gov/eehem/95/950912.html
  17. Making Low Income Housing Affordable: The Northgate Retrofits
    www.homeenergy.org/archive/hem.dis.anl.gov/eehem/93/930308.html
  18. Selecting Windows for Energy Efficiency
    www.homeenergy.org/archive/hem.dis.anl.gov/eehem/95/950708.html
  19. Energy Efficient Retrofit- The Building Envelope
    www.cmhc-schl.gc.ca/en/co/renoho/refash/refash_006.cfm
  20. Energy Efficient Upgrade – Mechanical Systems
    www.cmhc-schl.gc.ca/en/co/renoho/refash/refash_006.cfm
  21. ASHRAE Mulls Continuous Air Barriers
    www.bdcnetwork.com/article/ashrae-mulls-continuous-air-barriers
  22. Blueprint for Advancing High-Performance Homes
    Turner-Vaughan Issues in Science and Technology Article.pdf
  23. TightVent Europe Newsletter September 2012: The Observatoire BBA Examines Airtightness
    tightvent.eu
  24. Mandatory Energy-Reporting for Large Buildings Reaches Minneapolis - Construction Dive, Feb 14, 2013
    http://www.constructiondive.com/news/mandatory-energy-reporting-for-large-buildings-reaches-minneapolis/100467/?utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Construction+Dive+created+2013-02-15+092649992678&utm_content=Construction+Dive+created+2013-02-15+092649992678+CID_73b5b778e362e5932d9bb5ed3931c8f0&utm_source=campaignmonitor&utm_term=Mandatory%20energy-reporting%20for%20large%20buildings%20reaches%20Minneapolis
  25. Building Energy Benchmarking and Disclosure is Adopted by the City of Minneapolis - MEEA Unplugged, Feb 12, 2013
    http://blog.mwalliance.org/2013/02/building-energy-benchmarking-and-disclosure-is-adopted-by-the-city-of-minneapolis

In the Media

  1. New Study Finds Americans Jumping Ahead in Energy Efficiency
    Read more